It was recommended by a neighbor (third or fourth generation farmer). I have absolutely no experience with vetch, except we have some along a couple fencelines. In cattle, vetch-associated disease is prevalent and more severe in cattle > 3 years old. Hairy vetch is used for forage and hay or in cover crops to build organic matter and add high amounts of nitrogen. Hairy vetch should be cut in the early bloom stage if grown for hay. Vetches have pinnate leaves, meaning that they alternate on opposite sides of a main petiole. months[9]="September"; Outbreaks are most common during the season of maximal vetch growth, although sporadic cases are observed throughout the year. Hairy vetch is a forage plant found in pastures, which when ingested by your horse, can cause systemic granulomatous disease which can have long-term and sometimes permanent involvement. -edited by Dr. Ingeborg Langohr, ADDL Graduate student, Anderson CA and Divers TJ: 1983. Foxtail (or german) millet contains a compound that causes joint pain in horses. Large Animal Internal Medicine, 3rd ed. The third form of V. villosa  (and, to a lesser extent, other Vicia species) poisoning, which is the best studied and documented of the three forms, consists of pruritic dermatitis with alopecia (not restricted to non-pigmented areas as seen with photo-sensitivity), diarrhea, weight loss, drop in milk yield, and sporadic abortions and red-tinged urine. It has been proposed that the vetch lectins induce a type IV, or cell mediated, hypersensitivity reaction that would account for the inflammatory reaction seen in this condition. var months=new Array(13); Fax: (812) 678-3412, Home Users Guide Fee Schedule Sex predilection is not apparent. Systemic granulomatous disease is also known as equine idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, generalized or granulomatous disease, equine histiocytic disease or equine histiocytic dermatitis and can be deadly for your horse depending on the severity of the disease and how far it has progressed. months[2]="February"; In another form, the animals may present with subcutaneous swelling, ulcers of the oral mucous membranes, purulent nasal discharge, cough, alopecia, weakness, and loss of appetite. ... Rutgers Cooperative Extension, if horses consume some crown vetch, feed alfalfa and prevent additional access to crown vetch. J Vet Diag Invest. months[6]="June"; The results of these testing modalities will provide necessary information to determine if the infection is immune-mediated (a disease process resulting from the activities of the immune system). The seeds of Vicia sativa have been reported to contain cyanide. These have been referred to as "vetch-like diseases", and have been associated with the consumption of rations containing diureido-isobutance (DUIB) in the Netherlands, the ingestion of silage preserved with Sylade (a commercial silage additive consisting of a combination of formalin and sulphuric acid) in Wales, and the consumption of citrus pulp in the United States, England, and Brazil. Teton New Media, Jackson, WY  169-170, 186. var date=time.getDate(); A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America. months[12]="December"; In the first year, the drought year, the best producing crop early, was hairy vetch drilled into the glyphosate treated field. Hairy vetch is a common cover crop that is not recommended as livestock forage. Buy and sell Vetch Hay, Rye grass hay & more quickly and easily on Farm Tender, Australia’s premier agricultural market place. When planted in the fall it will produce most of its biomass in the winter and the early spring. The ultimate cause of the infiltrates are from the immune system itself, since this disease attacks the immune system of the host. The leaves have 10-20 leaflets up to 1 inch in length which are narrow and lance-shaped. The one plant that seemed to do best in most of the seedings was perennial rye grass. Knight AP and Walter RG: 2001. Hairy vetch, crimson clover, and arrowleaf clover are all unpalatable to horses. Cattle that develop the clinical disease usually have been grazing pasture that contained hairy vetch for at least 2 to 6 weeks, and sometimes clinical signs can become apparent only after the cattle have been removed from the hairy vetch pastures. The seeds of hairy vetch when eaten in quantity by cattle and horses cause nervous signs and sudden death. The nutritive value of common vetch hay is higher than that of alfalfa and sainfoin at a similar vegetative stage. One clinical form is characterized by acute neurological signs compatible with the cyanogenic glycosides contained in the seeds. months[3]="March"; may collect a share of sales or other compensation from the links on this page. Here are some of the symptoms you may see: These are some, but not all, of the symptoms that, if noted, should be considered reasons for medical evaluation, as progression of the disease can include liver, heart and lung involvement. Panciera RJ, Mosier DA and Ritchey JW: 1992. It will, or course, be a primary concern for removal of the remaining horses in your herd from the hairy vetch exposure if it is a component of the affliction. Scientific Name: Vicia spp. Johnson B, Moore J, Woods LW and Galey FD: 1992. The flowers, borne in a dense one-sided spike, are violet and white to rose colored. This problem is more likely to occur when mature vetch with seeds is consumed or when vetch comprises most of the pasture, and is less likely to occur with hay or haylage than with pasture containing vetch. Many cases of this disease occur in this species without known exposure to vetch pasture. months[11]="November"; On postmortem examination of affected animals, there are multifocal to coalescing, gray-yellow, soft to moderately firm nodules disrupting the normal architecture of several organs, including liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, lymph nodes, and adrenal gland. When these hays are not available, horse owners may choose less traditional hay types such as grain hays (oat, wheat barley). document.write("" + lmonth + " "); Microscopically, the lesions consist of perivascular granulomatous inflammatory infiltrate composed of epitheloid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, occasional multinucleated giant cells, and, often, eosinophils. In these systems, the hairy vetch is either mechanically or chemically terminated during full bloom to allow for peak nitrogen accumulation and maximum vetch kill prior to planting the row crop. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) is often used as a forage legume or cover crop throughout many temperate areas of the world, including the United States. Vetch is grown in many areas of the country and makes a high-quality hay when grown alone or mixed with small grains. var time=new Date(); ... Hairy vetch Winter annual used primarily as a cover crop E-M M Ladino clover Perennial F G E E E E-L M 10% - 30% vetch inclusion in a whole crop mixture with cereals and or peas. : . The prognosis for your horse will be dependent upon the severity of the infection and the degree to which the disease has progressed  afflicting your horse. The disease prevalence is greatest when the major component of the forage is hairy vetch or when the plant is reaching maturity in mid to late spring. In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. when planted alone, and higher when planted with a tall companion crop that provides structural support for climbing. A steady diet of only one thing can be enough to make any digestive system unhappy, man or beast. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)is an annual, biennial, or rarely perennial, trailing or climbing legume. Hairy vetch is a legume used primarily for soil improvement along roadsides and for bank stabilization. Three basic forms of hairy vetch poisoning have been noted, each affecting different areas and systems of the body: While hairy vetch poisoning is not common to horses but is more common in cattle, it tends to be more of a problem when the hairy vetch is a primary source of forage or when the plant is in its maturing stage, (mid to late spring). Systemic granulomatous disease in a horse grazing pasture vetch (Vicia sp). West Lafayette, IN 47907 Hairy vetch, also known by its biological name of Vicia Villosa, is a forage plant which, as noted above, when ingested by your horse can cause systemic granulomatous disease which is a disease which targets the immune system of the horse. In cattle, the ingestion of Vicia spp. Hairy vetch is a nitrogen-fixing plant that works well as a cover crop but is not recommended as a forage crop because of toxicity to cattle and horses. Intranet. Phone: 765-494-7440 In horses, reported clinical signs include generalized dermatitis, with alopecia, crusting and scaling, blepharitis, conjunctivitis, corneal ulceration, lymphadenomegaly, depen-dent edema, diarrhea, and wasting, accompanied by lymphocytosis and hyperproteinemia. Though commonly found in pastures, hairy vetch can cause a systemic granulomatous disease, occasionally in cattle and rarely in horses. Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in California associated with grazing hairy vetch (Vicia villosa). If these hays are not available, horse owners may have to choose from less traditional hay types. Plant Characteristics: Common vetch is a slender, viney winter annual with compound leaves and narrow leaflets. Once this determination has been made, an appropriate treatment plan can be developed and initiated. Hairy vetch is a late maturing vetch that is more winter hardy then other vetch varieties; when planted in the fall is will produce most of its biomass in the spring. The lab and your vet will be looking for increased white blood cells (which reveal presence of inflammation and infection) and excessive proteins in the blood. has been associated with three apparently different clinical manifestations. The seeds may contain cyanide. Is Crown Vetch safe to feed to horses? *Wag! Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) poisoning in cattle: update and experimental induction of disease. Crown vetch OK for most livestock, but can cause problems for horses. Fax: 765-494-9181, ADDL-SIPAC Smith BP: 2002. var year=time.getYear(); The diagnosis of hairy vetch poisoning will require a complete history from you, a thorough physical examination by your veterinary professional as well as laboratory testing of blood and tissue samples. https://www.addl.purdue.edu/newsletters/2004/winter/vetch.asp It is noted that horses having only cutaneous involvement respond better to treatment and have a better prognosis. Items are sold by the retailer, not Wag!. Some horses, historically, have had a spontaneous healing but this is also rare. The interval between the appearance of clinical signs and death ranges from 3 days to 5 weeks, but is usually between 10 and 20 days. Give the soil and your horses a balanced diet. Lana woollypod Vetch is vigorous variety used for forage and hay or in cover crops to build organic matter and add high amounts of nitrogen. Systemic granulomatous inflammation in a horse grazing hairy vetch. It is the only vetch species that can be planted in the fall and be mature the next summer and the only vetch … Later seeded vetch grown as a cover crop for green manure, will supply a smaller amount of N. Vetches are also grown for pasture. Symptoms of Hairy Vetch Poisoning in Horses In cattle and horses, grazing hairy vetch sometimes causes a painful dermatitis across the entire body or neurological signs. It should not be used for either hay or pasture. It is cultivated for its use as a pasture grass and cover crop. For one thing, most of them are unpalatable, and horses who are filling up on quality forage aren't likely to spend a lot of time grazing on the few bitter leaves populating their pasture. 406 S. University Hairy vetch contains toxins to horses, while … The ideal time for cutting is a trade-off between quality (high protein) and … Hairy vetch performs well in rotations with conventional and no-till planted row crops. A genetic predisposition is also suggested because vetch-associated systemic granulomatous disease occurs mainly in Holstein and Angus cattle. Also in cattle, several clinically and pathologically similar (if not identical) diseases have been reported in animals that have not had access to vetch. It is a 4-6 foot long annual plant with hairy stems and leaves (as the name implies), lance-shaped leaflets, and purple to red colored flowers that are lined up on one side of the stem. Morbidity rates vary from 1-68% (but in most outbreaks is approximately 10%); lethality rates are usually high (50-100%;  therefore, recovery of animals that develop severe disease is unlikely. Interstate Publishers, Inc., Danville , IL: 294. months[7]="July"; Hairy vetch is a forage plant found in pastures, which when ingested by your horse, can cause systemic granulomatous disease which can have long-term and sometimes permanent involvement. months[4]="April"; Well-nodulated hairy vetch can enrich the soil with 60 to 120 lb/acre of nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. months[8]="August"; Some researchers believe that the seeds of hairy vetch might actually contain cyanide. if (year < 2000) Ad apted from Penn State Aronomy Facts g #32 by Mavin H.Hall r and Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992. The administration of corticosteroids is generally the preferred course of treatment, with prednisolone over prednisone being the steroid of choice for horses. However, on the other farms, the hairy vetch did not do as well. The infiltrates from the disease have been microscopically noted in the skin, heart, liver and other organs and can, accordingly, result in a high morbidity rate for equine afflicted with this poisoning. JAVMA 183(5): 569-570. Another hypothesis is that the vetch lectins might directly activate T lymphocytes, thereby initiating the multisystemic granulomatous disease. Having said that, it is important to note that more aggressive immunosuppressive treatment may be required but advantages and disadvantages to this aggressive treatment will need to be weighed against the risks of such long-term treatment. Is generally the preferred course of treatment, with hairy stems and leaves here is a slender viney! Found throughout all 50 states in the disease process animals in North America Guide to poisoning! Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992 Patriia Comrford, Pennsylvc eania State University,1992 itself to other plants for! 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